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Еще одна статья о подготовке к IELTS/ Writing
WRITING

Что оценивается в тесте Writing (в порядке убывания значимости)
1. Длина текста (наиболее распространенная ошибка - недостаточная длина)
2. Структура и организованность текста.

Introduction - здесь должно быть сформулировано, про что это сочинение
Reasons - лучше, если сначала перечислены доводы за, потом доводы против
Stages - если вопрос о процессе, то нужно перечислить этапы.
Обязательно должны быть абзацы.
Conclusion - обобщение, либо рекомендация, либо - какой точке зрения отдается предпочтение.
Текст должен быть разбит на абзацы. Их отсутствие считается ошибкой.
Каждый абзац должен начинаться со связующего слова (however, besides, although - см.список)

3. Содержание. Никто не оценивает глубину мысли. Содержание должно соответствовать заданию, и чем проще идеи, изложенные в тексте, тем лучше.
4. Словарный запас. Если соискатель в состоянии не повторять слова из задания, его оценка повышается. Еще текст должен быть fluent, т.е. легко читаться.
5. Ошибки. Грамматические и другие ошибки учитываются только с одной точки зрения - насколько они затрудняют понимание текста. Если они не мешают, то им придается мало значения.
Но если хочется продемонстрировать хорошую грамматику, то баллы добавляются за количество разных времен, правильно использованных в одном письме или сочинении.

6. Сложные предложения. Их присутствие считается положительным фактом, если они правильно построены.

SAMPLE TASKS FOR WRITING

Letters

1.Large tree grows just near your house, producing troubles for you. Write a letter to local authority explaining this problem, discuss the ways of its resolution and make enquiries about financial aspect.
2.You live in a room in college which you share with another student. You find very difficult to work there because he or she always has friends visiting. They have parties in the room and sometimes borrow your things without asking you. Write a letter to the Accomodation officer at the college and ask for a new room next term. You would prefer a single room. Explain your reasons.
3. You rent a house through an agency. The heating system has stopped working. You phoned the agency a week ago but it has still not been mended. Write a letter to the agency. Explain the situation and tell them what you want them to do about it
4. You have had an accident and are in hospital. Write a letter to your college administration explaining why you will be absent from class for the next month. Ask for advice about how to continue your studies during this period.
5. You find that your study load is too heavy. Write a letter to your college teacher explaining why you need to withdraw from two courses. Ask if it is possible to obtain a refund.
6. You want to apply for the following job. Write a letter to Mr Moore describing your previous experience and explaining why you would be suitable for the job.
Announcement: Water/waitress required for evening work. Some experience necessary. Write to: Mr K.Moore
7. You have had a bank account for a few years. Recently you received a letter from the bank stating that your account is $240 overdrawn and that you will be charged $70 which will be taken directly from your account. You know that the information is incorrect. Write a letter to the bank. Explain what has happened and say what you would like them to do about it.
8. Write a report for your college teacher describing an English-language course which you have taken. Explain why it is not necessary for you to take further English-language courses.
9. You are writing a letter to your pen pal. Describe your previous studies and work experience, your current activities, hobbies and interests. Tell your pen pal that you will be visiting her/his country during the summer vacation and suggest meeting him/her.
10. Being on a visit in foreign country, you have post your passport. Write a letter to a Russian embassy officer asking what to do. Give details about circumstances of your loss and describe your further actions.
11. You have had an accident and are in hospital with A broken leg. Your friends visited you bringing books, flowers and fruit. Write a letter to one of your friends thanking him/her for his/her attention. Give details about all that happened to and comment on the medical treatment which you received.
12. You are a tourist and have settled into the hotel. Although your room was booked in advance through a travel agency, you discover that there is no balcony, the entrance is under the staircase and the window opens on to the road. Write a letter to the travel agency manager asking her/him for a refund of the cost of the accomodation.

Essays

Внимание! Список тем приблизительно обозначает круг вопросов, затрагиваемых в заданиях IELTS на Speaking, Writing, Reading

COMPUTERS IN MODERN LIFE

1. We are becoming increasingly dependent on computers. They are used in businesses, hospitals, crime detection and even to fly planes. What things will they be used for in future? Is this dependence on computers a good thing or should we be more suspicious of their benefits?
2. In what ways has information technology changed work and working practices in the past 10 years?
3. 'Telecommuting' refers to workers doing their jobs from home for part of each week and communicating with their office using computer technology. Telecommuting is growing in many countries and is expected to be common for most office workers in the coming decades. How do you think society will be affected by the growth of telecommuting?
4. Technology is making communication easier in today's world, but at the expense of personal contact as many people choose to work at home in front of a computer screen. What dangers are there for a society which depends on computer screens rather than face-to-face contact for its main means of communication?

SMOKING

5. Some businesses now say that no one can smoke cigarettes in any of their offices. Some governments have banned smoking in all public places. This is a good idea but it also takes away some of our freedom. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons.
6. Should the same laws which prohibit the sale and consumption of heroin be applied to tobacco?

ECOLOGY

7. To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable?
8. Human beings do not need to eat meat in order to maintain good health because they can get all their food needs from meatless products and meatless substances. A vegetarian diet is as healthy as a diet containing meat. Argue for or against the opinion above.
9. Forests are the lungs of the earth. Destruction of the world's forests amounts to death of the world we currently know. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
10. Are our zoos cruel to wild animals? Discuss.
11. Zoos are sometimes seen as necessary but not poor alternatives to a natural environment. Discuss some of the arguments for and/or against keeping animals in zoos.
12. To what extent should economic planning be influenced by the need of environmental conservation?
13. Damage of the environment is an inevitable consequence of worldwide improvements in the standard of living. Discuss.
14. The rising levels of congestion and air pollution found in most of the world cities can be attributed directly to the rapidly increasing number of private cars in use. In order to reverse this decline in the quality of life in cities, attempts must be made to encourage people to use their cars less and public transport more. Discuss possible ways to encourage the use of public transport.

EDUCATION

15. Education is the single most important factor in the development of a country. Do you agree?
16. What are factors which are related to academic success in high-school students?
17. Do the benefits of study abroad justify the difficulties? What advice would you offer to a prospective student?
18. The idea of going overseas for university study is an exciting prospect for many people. But while it may offer some advantages, it is probably better to stay home because of the difficulties a student inevitably encounters living and studying in a different culture. To what extent do you agree or disagree this statement? Give reasons for your answer.
19. Write a report to your sponsoring agency describing the English-language skills overseas students require. Make any recommendations you feel are necessary.
20. What kind of listening challenges do overseas students face in tertiary education? What recommendations would you offer?
21. Write a report to your sponsoring agency describing the accommodation problems faced by foreign students in Britain. Make any necessary recommendations.
22. Education is recognized as vital to the future of any society in today's world. Governments throughout the world should make education compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 and 15. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
23. Foreign language instruction should begin in kindergarten. Discuss.
24. Children should never be educated at home by their parents. Do you agree or disagree?
25. Children learn best by observing behavior of adults and copying it. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

26. To what extent should universities function as training grounds for employment?
27. To what extent should university courses be geared to the economic needs of society?
28. How do wage increases contribute to inflation?
29. Should wealthy nations be required to share their wealth among poorer nations by providing such things as food and education? Or is it a responsibility of the governments of poorer nations to look after their citizens themselves?
30. To what extent will migration from the developing world to the developed world become a social and political issue in the 21st century?
31. Many lives are in danger when hastily erected buildings collapse because safety standards have been sacrificed to hopes of a quick profit. To prevent disasters of this kind, governments should play a greater role in setting and enforcing safety standards for building construction.

SOCIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS

32. The dominance of black people in US sport is due to sociological rather than physiological factors. Discuss.
33. In Britain, when someone gets old, they often go to live in a home with other old people where there are nurses to look after them. Sometimes the government has to pay for this care.
Who should be responsible for our old people? Give reasons.
34. In some countries the average worker is obliged to retire at the age of 50, while in others people can work until they are 65 or 70. Meanwhile, we see some politicians enjoying power well into their eighties. Clearly, there is little agreement on an appropriate retirement age. Until what age do you think people should be encouraged to remain in paid employment? Give reasons for your answer.
35. In your opinion should government intervene in the rights of the individual with regard to family planning?
36. To what extent has the traditional male role changed in the last 20 years?
37. Many people believe that women make better parents than men and that this is why they have the greater role in raising children in most societies. Others claim that men are just as good as women at parenting Write an essay expressing your point of view. Give reasons for your answer.

CARS

38. The first car appeared on British roads in 1888. By the year 2000 there may be as many as 29 million vehicles on British roads. Alternative forms of transport should be encouraged and international laws introduced to control car ownership and use. What do you think?
39. The best way to reduce the number of traffic accidents is to make all young drivers complete a safe driving education course before being licensed to drive.
40. The rising levels of congestion and air pollution found in most of the world cities can be attributed directly to the rapidly increasing number of private cars in use. In order to reverse this decline in the quality of life in the cities attempts must be made to encourage people to use their cars less and public transport more. Discuss possible ways to encourage the use of public transport.

OTHER TOPICS

NUCLEAR POWER

41. The threat of nuclear weapons maintains world peace. Nuclear power provides cheap and clean energy. The benefits of nuclear technology far overweigh the disadvantages. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer.

TV

42. News editors decide what to broadcast on TV and what to print in newspapers. What factors do you think influence their decisions? Do we become used to bad news? Would it be better if more good news was reported?
43. TV: could you be without it? Discuss.
44. The mass media, including TV, radio and newspapers, have great influence in shaping people's ideas. To what extent do you agree or disagree this statement? Give reasons for your answer.

TOURISM

45. Useful tips for a foreigner coming to Russia. How to become successful in everyday communication in Russia. Give recommendations for a tourist.
46. Tourism is becoming increasingly important as a source of revenue to many countries but its disadvantages should not be overlooked.

MUSIC

47. What do you think might be advantages and disadvantages of life as a rock star?

Как писать письмо

Стандартная шапка приводится ниже. Так начинаются все письма делового характера.

Рекомендуется вкратце обозначить шапку, начиная письмо, чтобы показать, что вам известна эта форма. Адреса и номера писать не надо. Можно пропустить данные о себе.

Обратите внимание, что ссылка на предыдущее письмо (Re…), либо на содержание данного обращения идет после обращения Dear Sir/Madame.

Если ссылаться не на что, после обращения в одной фразе называют тему письма.

Затем, в новом абзаце описывается существо дела: например, что произошло и какие шаги были предприняты. Это очень важно: сразу начинать с изложения сути дела, без предварительных комментариев и жестов вежливости.

В следующем абзаце пишется что нужно сделать.

Не забывайте делать абзацы.

Dr Anna kukukuku
Here the address
Telephone & fax
Email

Monday, 21 June 1999
Mr D. Smith
Principal
DDD Corporation
Address or fax

Dear Sir/Madame Mr. D. Smith/ Mr Smith/David Smith (Name as in their letter or in the task),

Re: position advertised in The Age, 21.06.99
In the capacity of Senior Lecturer
This is to apply
I am writing to you to apply/inform/declare/recommend/discuss
Following our telephone conversation on 22.22.22 / this morning / yesterday
I would like to confirm / to provide you with my details / with some particulars in relation to my previous job

Следующие выражения используются при описании своих достоинств для устройства на работу. Неумеренные похвалы в свой адрес совершенно необходимы и считаются нормальными, потому что если человек не уверен в себе, его не примут.

I have a profound experience in… excellent communication skills
I am a fast learner / I enjoy working both as a team member and independently
I am a good team member/player
I love working with people/figures/computer/books…
I have a bright outlook to life
I consider myself a strong communicator and manager
Prior to that / this I was working for GGG where my responsibilities included
My previous work experience enables me to believe I can be a valuable asset of your business
I performed multifaceted duties that included
I would like to draw your attention to
I have a pleasure to recommend / introduce
I am extremely excited about the prospect of launching a marketing career
I trust that my letter / application will be looked upon favorably
I am confident that my background could make me an asset
I am looking for greater challenges
Please don't hesitate to contact me if any questions arise
Please don't hesitate to contact me in regards of any queries concerning my application

Заключительная часть

I am looking forward to hearing from you
I am available for the interview any time between 10 AM and 2 PM
I will appreciate your prompt reply
I will be most appreciative for your kind attention
Please re-consider your decision / point of view / opinion in the light of the additional information containing in this letter / provided to you by DR MMM in his letter / during your telephone conversation
(Please find my CV attached / enclosed)
I would welcome the opportunity to meet with you to discuss what I can contribute to your institution.

Прощание

Thank you for your consideration
Yours Faithfully (при первом обращении)
Sincerely Yours (при повторном обращении)
Truly or Cordially Yours (if you talked on the phone)

Частные письма

начинаются с обращения

Dear or Hi
It was nice to get a message/to hear from you

Заканчиваются

Pass my best regards to your family
Best wishes to you
Keep in touch
Let me know
See you soon

Привожу в качестве примера одно деловое письмо

Dr Anna kukukuku
Here the address
Telephone & fax
Email

Monday, 21 June 1999
Mr D. Smith
Manager
LLLL Air
Address or fax

Dear Sir,

Re: Compensation Claim

I was supposed to fly from Vienna to Melbourne by LLLL Air on 20.04.XX, flights NG 1&2. The flights were cancelled and there was a lot of confusion and mix-ups before I was re-booked on two different flights, one to Bangkok by LLLL, then by QQQQ to Melbourne. As a result I arrived 9 hours later: instead of 22 April, at 20.45, I was in Melbourne on 23 April, at 4.45. But that's not all. My luggage was missing for more than 30 hours and I received it on 24 April, at night. (Здесь излагается что произошло)

I am a visiting academic, coming down as a lecturer on the MMMMM University invitation. Due to the above event I had cancelled my first seminar on 23 April that was re-arranged for 24 April, at 11 AM.

When I rang to QQQQ luggage Department on 23 April, I was informed they expected my luggage to be flown here and delivered on 24 April, in the morning. When I rang again early in the morning on 24 April, I was informed that my luggage did not arrived yet and expected to be brought and delivered hopefully in the afternoon.

I had no rights or intentions to cancel my seminar again. Plus, the weather was really cold, and I was left in the foreign city in my tracksuit and slippers. (Затем описываются последствия происшествия, т.е. неудобства, которые вам были причинены)

I had to buy necessary clothing to protect myself from the cold and to be dressed properly to meet my colleagues and students. (Дальше пишется, какие действия были вами предприняты)

I have bought a minimum of necessities:

Jeans $94.95
Casual top $69.95
Shoes $100.00
Coat $329.00

Please find photocopies of receipts enclosed (The originals are available upon request)/ Или: See attachments enclosed. (Если к письму прилагаются какие-то документы, ставится ссылка на приложения)

I cannot conceal my disappointment but I still believe that LaudaAir is a good and reputable company. And I hope the situation can be resolved by proper and prompt compensation. (В заключительной части пишется, что требуется от вашего адресата (денежная компенсация, или отмена штрафных санкций, или ремонт, или другое).

Затем пишется комплимент - т.е. формула вежливости:

Yours faithfully,

Dr kukukuku

ПОДГОТОВКА К WRITING

(как работать со списком тем)

1. В каждом задании из раздела Essays выделить Topic и question.

Цель - научиться правильно понимать, что требуется сделать в задании.
Следует обратить внимание на то, что тема и вопрос не совпадают.

Примеры

In what ways has information technologie changed work and working practices in the past 10 years?
Topic - information technologie
Question - In what ways… has changed

Should the same laws which prohibit the sale and consumption of heroin be applied to tobacco?
Topic - laws which prohibit the sale and consumption of heroin
Question - should these laws be applied to tobacco?

Are negotiation skills critical in business administration
How are applications for immigration to Canada processed?
Are traditional architecture and modern technology compatible?

What are the factors which contribute to anxiety in tertiary students?

2. Стандартные схемы ответов.

А) Выбрать из списка те задания, где ответ предполагает формулировку да-нет.
Ответы на такие задания строятся по схеме:
introduction - reasons (+) - reasons (-) - conclusion

Б) В заданиях, где требуется Discuss или analyse некий процесс, ответы строятся по схеме: introduction - stages (1,2,3) - conclusion

В) Встречаются задания, где спрашивается "До какой степени", либо предлагается обсудить некую тему. Очевидно, что выстроить ответы ни по одной из предложенных выше схем напрямую нельзя. Поэтому нужно перефразировать задание так, чтобы оно превратилось в вопрос, предполагающий ответ да-нет. Тогда можно построить схему ответа по стандартному образцу.

Например.

To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable?=
Is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable?

To what extent should economic planning be influenced by the need of environmental conservation?=
Should economic planning be influenced by the need of environmental conservation?

How necessary is media sensorship in a modern society? =
Is media sensorship necessary in modern society?

To what extent is environmental damage irresistible? =
Is environmental damage irresistible?

3. Перефразирование. После того, как в описанной выше группе заданий выделены вопросы, предполагающие ответ да-нет, надо потренироваться в перефразировке этих предложений. Такой перефразированный вопрос впоследствии может использоваться как вводное предложение (introduction).

Например

To what extent is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable?=
Is the use of animals in scientific research acceptable?=
Should animals be used for scientific purposes?

4. Introduction в коротком сочинении - 1 фраза. Она содержит некое утверждение и обозначает основную идею essay.

Ниже приводятся примеры вводных предложений.

There appear to be both sociological and psychological phactors which account for the dominance of black athletes in some American sports.
To copy from hard disk to diskette the following procedure should be used.
There are four stages involved in the refining of crude oil into petroleum
Although air-conditioning has clearly established benefits, at also introduces an element of risk.

Выражения, которые могут использоваться для вводных предложений

The purpose of this essay is to present a…
The goal of this paper is to develop… Its objective is to investigate how…
The aim of this assignment is to produce characteristics…

Introduction может быть объединено с первой фразой рассуждений:
Overseas students whose first language is not English face a number of language-related challenges in tertiary study. They need to have effective writing, reading, soeaking and listening strategies.
All tertiary courses require students to write clearly and critically. This involves not only a command of the language system, but also an understanding of the conventions of academic writing.

В качестве упражнения на составление introductions можно составить вводные фразы ко всем темам из списка.

5. Затем можно потренироваться писать содержание, используя подготовленные планы. При этом нужно обязательно употреблять различные выражения-связки.

Addition

In addition; And; Similarly; Likewise; As well as; Besides; Furthermore; Also; Moreover; And then; Too; Not only, but; Even

Sequence in order

Firstly; Secondly; Thirdly; Initially; To begin with; Earlier/later; After this/that; Following this/that; Afterwards

Consequence

As a result; Thus; So; Therefore; Consequently; It follows that; Thereby; Eventually; Then; In that case; Admittedly; Hence

Contrast (comparison)

However; On one hand/on the other hand; Despite; In spite of; Although; Though; But; On the contrary; Otherwise; Yet; Instead of; Rather; Whereas; Nonetheless; Even though; Compared with; In contrast; Alternatively

Certainty

Certainly; Obviously; Evidently; Undoubtedly; Of course

Condition

If; Unless; Whether; Provided that; For; So that; Depending on;

Definition

Is; Refers to; Means; Consists of; That is

Example

For instance; One example; Just as; In particular; Such as; Namely; To illustrate

Reason

Since; As; So; Because of; Due to; Owing to; The reason why; In other words; Leads to; Cause;
Time; Before ; Since; Until; Meanwhile; While; At the moment; When; Whenever; As soon as; Just as

Summary

In conclusion; To sum up; To conclude with; Lastly; Finally; To recapitulate; In short

Внимание! Слова надо заучить и всячески употреблять их не только в письменном задании, но и в интервью, за это добавляют баллы!!!

6. Вывод - это одна фраза, которая содержит либо обобщение всех предыдущих, либо предлагает вариант решения проблемы, либо подводит итог и описывает результат.

Например.

In conclusion, although there is some evidence for the role of physiology in determining the dominance of black athletes in some American sports, sociological factors appear more influential.

At this point the procedure for coping from hard disk to diskette is complete

Having completed the fourth stage, the final product - petroleum - has been obtained.

Provided the above recommendations are adopted, air conditioning in hospitals is both safe and beneficial.

Дальше делаем упражнение, сочиняя выводы. Не стоит употреблять выражения I think that, to my mind - поскольку целью является демонстрация более или менее академического письма (даже для General), лучше использовать безличные формы.

7. После того, как сочинения на все темы готовы (или не на все, по вкусу), полезно сделать еще одно упражнение. Берем одно сочинение и полностью переписываем его другими словами, используя тот же план. На одну тему можно написать до 3 вариантов.

Writing оценивается исходя из четырех параметров:

Fulfilment
Насколько полно Вы ответили на данный вопрос.
Оценивается также Ваша идея, последовательность мыслей и раскрытие темы. Это наиболее важный пункт при оценке Ваших письменных работ.

Балл могут снизить, если Вы:
не ответили на какой-либо из вопросов в задании
отклонились от темы
несколько раз повторяете одну и ту же идею
хаотично располагаете мысли
переписываете слова и фразы из задания

Clearance
Насколько ясно Вы излагаете свои мысли.
Оценивается Ваше умение построить красивые истинно-английские предложения и умение донести идею до читателя. Это второй самый важный пункт при написании работ.

Балл могут снизить, если Вы:
используете русизмы
пишете запутанные предложения
используете много нетипичных оборотов

Vocabulary
Оценивается Ваш словарный запас и умение его применять.
Этому меньше уделяют внимание, при условии, что слово несет верное значение. Если слово используется неверно, то англичанин может не понять, что Вы хотите сказать, и это уже будет двойная ошибка Vocabulary + Clearance.

Балл могут снизить, если Вы:
используете неверные слова
из-за неправильного написания меняете значение слова (например, вместо "meet" пишите "meat")
пишете прилагательное, вместо существительного и т.п. (например growing вместо growth)
используете фразальные глаголы, когда их можно заменить обычными (find out вместо discover) (мое личное примечание: с трудом в это верю, поскольку многие фразальные глаголы очень часто употребляются в повседневной жизни)

Grammar
Оценивается грамматическое построение предложений и орфография. Кстати, орфографии здесь отдается последнее место, главное, чтобы слово было понятно.

Балл могут снизить, если Вы:
используете русскую структуру предложений
пишите слишком длинные предложения
меняете смысл слов из-за орфографических ошибок
используете неверные предлоги после глаголов и/или прилагательных
делаете ошибки в элементарной грамматике

Дополнительная информация
Если экзаменатор поставил:
Fulfillment 7, Clearance 7, Vocabulary 7, Grammar 6 - общая оценка будет 7.0
Если экзаменатор поставил
Fulfillment 7, Clearance 7, Vocabulary 6, Grammar 6 - то общая оценка будет 6.0
(округляют всегда в меньшую сторону...)
Если по "Task 1" у Вас общий Балл получается "6", а по "Task 2" общий Балл "7", то за весь writing Вам поставят "7.0"
А вот если наоборот, т.е. "Task 1"-"7 баллов", а "Task 2"- "6 баллов ", то за весь writing ,будет "6.0"
Если Вы напишите всего одно задание (например на 7.0), то Балл за это задание делят пополам (получаете 3.5 а округляем, и получаем 3.0).
Так что всегда пишите оба задания!

Источник: http://www.ielts.napishi.ru, www.ielts.kiev.ua

Категория: Статьи о сдаче языковых экзаменов | Добавил: Hiver (23.01.2008)
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